Cobalt Chromite Blue Pigment
Cobalt Chromite Blue pigment is cobalt aluminate blue-green spinel (Co[Al,Cr]2O4) made by calcining at 2400°F a mixture of cobalt (II) oxide, chromium (III) oxide, and aluminum (III) oxide in varied ratios forming a interdiffused crystalline spinel matrix. Its constitution may also include one or more of the modifiers ZnO, MgO, SiO2, TiO2, and/or ZrO2 to adjust color hue or other properties.
Cobalt Chromite Blue pigment is cobalt chromite blue-green spinel (Co[Al,Cr]2O4) made by calcining at 2400°F a mixture of cobalt (II) oxide, chromium (III) oxide, and aluminum (III) oxide in varied ratios forming a interdiffused crystalline spinel matrix. Its constitution may also include one or more of the modifiers ZnO, MgO, SiO2, TiO2, and/or ZrO2 to adjust color hue or other properties. Cobalt blue pigments are the most durable blue pigments commercially available. They have excellent chemical and heat stability, and can be used in chemically aggressive environments and exterior durable applications without color fade.
Cobalt chromite blue pigment has good ultraviolet and visible light opacity, is chemically inert, heat resistant, and stable to ultraviolet light. It is non-bleeding and non-migratory. It has exceptional durability and hiding power, and is generally used in applications where resistance to heat, light, and weather are needed. It is compatible with most resins and polymers, and is non-warping. Typical applications (non inclusive) are liquid and powder coatings, inks, dispersions, concrete, plastics, and other applications where equivalent pigment chemistry is used.
This pigment is very easily dispersible, does not need grinding for dispersion and can simply be stirred in using most laboratory and production equipment to achieve full dispersion.
|Common Names (pigment):
|English: cobalt chromite blue spinel
French: spinelle bleu cobalt d'chromite
German: Kobalt Cromit blauen Spinell
Italian: cobalto cromito blu spinello
Spanish: cobalto espinela de cromito azules
|Pigment Blue 36 (77343)
|Cobalt Chromite Blue-Green Spinel
|Particle Size (mean):
|15 grams oil / 100 grams pigment
|Health and Safety
|There are no acute or known chronic health hazards associated with the anticipated use of this product (most chemicals are not fully tested for chronic toxicity). Always protect yourself against potentially unknown chronic hazards of this and other chemical products by keeping them out of your body. Do this by avoiding ingestion, excessive skin contact, and inhalation of spraying mists, sanding dusts and vapors from heating. Conforms to ASTM D-4236.
For a detailed explanation of the terms in the table above, please visit Composition and Permanence.
Origin and History
Cobalt aluminate is identified as the blue pigment on 30 polychromic shards of the 18th dynasty from Theben and Tell el Amarna. The spinel phase has a much lower cobalt/aluminum ratio than modern cobalt blue pigments. Probably it contains nickel and zinc, which were found by x-ray spectroscopy. Cobalt salts were first identified in the eighteenth century. The earliest modern history of cobalt aluminate pigments commences with Leithner in Vienna who appears to have discovered the basic process of calcining cobalt oxide and alumina (aluminum oxide) in 1775. Techniques for manufacturing cobalt blue, the chemically pure salt of cobalt and aluminum oxide, were developed in 1802.
Cobalt blue is cobalt aluminate blue spinel (Pigment Blue 28 or PB 28) with the chemical structure CoAl2O4 of which there are three basic modifications (Pigment Blue 36:1, Pigment Blue 36 and Pigment Blue 72), in which parts of the cobalt are substituted either alone or in combination with chromium and zinc. These variations differ in their tinting strength and hue.
|Cobalt Blue Pigment Family
|Cobalt aluminate blue spinel
|Pigment Blue 28
|Cobalt chromite blue-green spinel
|Pigment Blue 36
|Zinc cobalt chrome aluminum spinel
|Pigment Blue 36:1
|Cobalt zinc aluminate spinel
|Pigment Blue 72
The basic cobalt blue color, Pigment Blue 28, is produced by high-temperature calcination of cobalt (II) oxide (CoO) and aluminum oxide (Al2O4). The variations are produced by a partial substitution of the cobalt by chromium and zinc, either alone or in combination with each other. The result is a large variety of cobalt blue pigments that differ in their tinting strength or hues (reddish or greenish blue), depending on the exact chemical composition. The lighter-colored cobalt blue is prepared by addition of zinc (II) oxide to the ingredients used for the basic pigment, forming Pigment Blue 72. Blue-green hues are produced by introducing chromium (III) oxide, partially replacing the aluminum (III) oxide in the basic cobalt blue, forming Pigment Blue 36.
All of them form the crystalline modification of spinel during calcination. The spinels are a class of minerals that crystallize in the cubic (isometric) crystal system with the oxide anions arranged in a cubic close-packed lattice and the cations occupy some or all of the octahedral and tetrahedral sites in the lattice. Spinel minerals form octahedral crystals that are usually twinned. They have an imperfect octahedral cleavage and conchoidal fracture. The hardness of spinel minerals is around 8 (chalk has a hardness of 2-3), specific gravity is 3.5-4.1 and it is transparent to opaque with a vitreous to dull luster.
Permanence and Compatibility
All cobalt blue pigments are chemically inert, absolutely insoluble, have good hiding power and excellent heat stability, and show very good lightfastness and weather resistance.
In most water-based paint, cobalt blue is a semi-transparent pigment with moderate tinting strength. When it dries, it appears lighter and less saturated. Although pigment particles are very fine, they flocculate, giving a grainy appearance in watercolor. Differences in how the pigment is ground and mixed lead to considerable differences in its performance.
In oil-based paint, cobalt blue is a semi-transparent pigment with moderate tinting strength. Differences in how the pigment is ground and mixed can lead to considerable differences in its appearance.
Oil Absorption and Grinding
Cobalt blue absorbs a moderately high amount of oil; about 55 grams of linseed oil per 100 grams of pigment to make a paste. It has been noted in some manuals that the pigment works better as a watercolor than it does in oil, and is highly valued on that account among moist colors used by artists. Grinding it for artists' use in oil will require 35 percent dry pigment to 65 percent by weight of poppy seed or walnut oil, either of which is preferred by some artists to linseed oil. Cobalt blue has a greenish tone that when viewed under incandescent light is more or less reddish blue.
Cobalt blue is not considered toxic, however, care should be used in handling the dry powder pigment to avoid inhaling the dust. All toxicological studies showed no signs of toxicity to humans or the environment.
In animal studies, cobalt blue pigments did not display acute toxicity. No acute irritant effect was shown in tests to determine the acute irritation of skin and mucous membranes. In studies on rats to determine the carcinogenic potential, no statistically significant results were found. Soluble cobalt compounds as well as cobalt metal may have a sensitizing effect. However, none have been reported during the experience of many years of handling cobalt blue pigments.
Since cobalt blue is inert and practically insoluble in water, it does not pose a hazard to the environment. The pigment can be removed mechanically from effluents. On controlled dump sites, no dissolved heavy metals are released into the seepage water.
For more information on how to handle pigments safely, please visit How to Safely Handle Art Materials and Pigments.
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